The nucleus of the Medical Library began in 1961 with the establishment of the Peradeniya Medical School as a branch of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ceylon, Colombo. The Peradeniya Medical School became an independent Faculty of Medicine of the Universitry of Ceylon, Peradeniya in 1967.

The Medical Library Collection developed and housed in the Medical Faculty premises, was shifted to the newly constructed Medical Library in 1973. Thus, Medical Library became the first branch library of the University of Peradeniya Library System, serving the Faculties of Medicine and Dental Sciences. The Medical Library extended its services to the newly established Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in 1980. In June 1994 a separate library was established for the Faculty of Vet. Medicine, and the collection on Veterinary Medicine was shifted to the newly established Vet. Medical Llibrary. The cliental of the Medical Library now comprises the members of the academic staff, undergraduates and postgraduates of Faculties of Medicine and Dental Sciences.

The Medical Library houses the collection of books and journals pertaining to Medical Sciences and Dentistry. The collection comprises of about 20,000 volumes and 1,100 titles of periodicals stacked in 350 meters of shelving.